A translation from the brochure "Informator o miescie i gminie Góra"
This brochure was published by the Góra city administration on the occasion of
the 700-year anniversary of the city in 2000.
January 28, 1945. Góra comes into the boundaries of the Polish state. The city
becomes the seat for the Township Góra in the Breslau Woiwodschaft.
May 10-12, 1945. The Township administration begins its term of office.
1945. The company "Lower-Silesia Nicotine Products" is operational; the dairy, the water
distribution and the hospital were made operational after reconstruction or repair. The first
kindergarten in Lower-Silesia, after the Second World War, was opened in Góra. In
September the primary schools and high schools were in operation again. The first soccer
game was played.
1946. The sugar factory, the sawmill, and the steam flourmill were put again into operation.
The Township library was created. The brass orchestra OSP had the first appearance.
November, 1946. The first session of the peoples town council Góra took place. The city counts
approx. 3600 inhabitants.
1947. A total of 36 primary schools are operational In the Township Góra.
1948. The sanitary column was created.
1948. The radio center was put in operation. It covered the area of the villages Chróscina
(Kraschen), Witoszyce (Heinzendorf), Slawecice (Schlabitz), Stara Góra (Alt-Guhrau) und
1951. The educational library was created.
1954. The newspaper "Gazeta Górowska" appears.
1960. For the first time since the end of the Second World War the "Guhrauer Days" were
celebrated. The celebrations lasted from the18. of August to the1. September.
1961. In Ryczen (Rützen), in the proximity of Góra, a leisure center at the river Barycz
(Bartsch) was build.
1965. The amateur film club Profil was started.
1970. On the Góra/Guhrau music stage appeared the band Walcmany, which became fast
a cultural calling card of the city. In the same year the educational/vocational advisory office
began the work.
September 29, 1973. The festive inauguration of the "culture year" for all of Lower Silesia took
place in Góra.
1975. The Park of culture and relaxation, a tennis court, a workout path, were constructed.
June 1, 1975. After the administrative reform of the state, Góra did not remain as the
capital of the Township; Góra was incorporated into Leszno (Lissa) Woiwodschaft.
January, 1979. New boundaries were established for the since 1945 existing Forestry
Góra. The Forestry extended over 20507 hectars, and was thereby the largest forestry in
the Leszno (Lissa) Woiwodschaft.
1985. Dedication of the gratitude monument on the former market place. (The present
name is liberty monument).
1986. A cultural co-operation was taken up with the German city Bad Salzungen.
1990. The newspaper Gazeta Górowska. Appears again under new management.
May 27, 1990. Beginning of the office period of the newly elected Self-government. (The
first free elections.)
1990. A sugar silo, which holds 15000 tons sugar, was built.
December, 1990. The number of inhabitants of the city was 11921.
1991. The newspaper Przeglad Górowski of the Góra self-governing body began to
1993. For the first time the price for "The Man of the Year" was presented.
October 23, 1993. A partnership agreement between the municipalities of Herzberg am
Harz (Germany) and Góra is signed.
December, 1993. The number of inhabitants of the city was 12563.
November 11, 1994. The first "Run of Independence" took place. Five years later this competition
was incorporated into the calendar of events for all of Poland.
May, 1995. On the occasion of the 50-year anniversary of the return of the Góra homeland to
the motherland many interesting exhibitions were organized.
May, 1995. The first competition Góra and Guhrauer homeland was organized by the
July, 1995. The first bicycle trip, in which all Góra churches participated, was organized by
the "Children friends".
January 26, 1996. The rehabilitation center for handicapped children was built in Jastrzebie
December, 1996. The number of inhabitants of the city was 12863.
July, 1997. The river Barycz (Bartsch) flooded forests, meadows, and fields in its path. The
flood did not completely spare the community Góra/Guhrau. The southern part of the
community experienced some flooding.
1998. The contract of co-operation between Góra and the Dutch town Maasdonk was
1998. The number of inhabitants of the city was 13194.
January 1,1999. Góra becomes again the Township capital and is now contained in the
Woiwodschaft Lower Silesia. (Niederschlesien).
1999. The building of the storage basin „Ryczen" (Rützen) began. The storage basin is
intended to protect the municipality against floods.
2000. The celebration of the seven-hundred-year anniversary of the existence of Góra.
The following events were not included in the translated document mentioned above or took
place after the year 2000.
May 5, 1945. In the whole district there were only 18 people (former inhabitants) declaring
Polish nationality, 50 Ukrainians, 100 Polish people and about 600 Germans. Some
Germans were returning and in August their number increased to 800. Some of them
worked on Soviet military farms, some worked for the Polish administration as all kinds of
specialists. They were paid normal wages but were paying a special 15% tax for the Fund
of Hitlerism Victims.
Source: Góra Review, translated by Waclaw Timoszyk. Thank You Waclaw.
Only 148 of former residents were still living there and declaring Polish nationality.
Source: Góra Review, translated by Waclaw Timoszyk. Thank You Waclaw.
1960. Partial collapse of the altar of the Catholic Church during service. No injuries, only
damage to property.
1966. Leveling of the Evangelical Church because of disuse, since the current inhabitants
are predominantly catholic.
Leveling of the burned out city hall and the adjacent houses. (Liepelt shoe store and the
former Hotel Drei Kronen.) The whole eastern side of the market square consists now of a
block of apartments.
Transformation of the former market square into a park (lawn, flowers, benches, monument)
June, 2000. The cellars of the Evangelical Church were not destroyed when it was torn
down and according to eyewitness reports; the church records were hidden there in January
1945. With permission of the current city administration, a search for the church records
was attempted. Unfortunately the place of entry was described inaccurately and did not lead
to the location of the probably still existing church records.
October 18, 2001. A commemorative monument was inaugurated at the former site of the
Evangelical Cemetery. The cemetery was leveled in the postwar years. A delegation of the
"Guhrauer Heimatkreisgemeinschaft" and representatives of the Sister city Herzberg am
Harz (Germany) were invited for the occasion.
2002. The number of inhabitants is 13280.
2004. At the end of the year 2004 the population was 13191.
2006. At the end of February 2006 the population was 13163.
The Sugar Factory (Completed in 1889) was closed in January of 2006.
The last owner was the German company Pfeifer & Langen in Köln (Cologne), Germany.
Renovation of the Culture Center on Armii Polskiej Street.
The Góra Days celebration was held from June 9 to June 11.
The construction of a new cinema in the Culture Center was completed in October. All other renovation
of the Culture Center was completed in late fall of 2006.
Góra Mayoral Elections November 12, 2006 - second Round November 26, 2006.
Mr. Tadeusz Wrotkowski wins the second round and remains the Mayor of the City of Góra for the next
2007. The Góra Days celebration was held from June 15 to June 17.
2007. At the end of December 2007 the population was 12805.
2009. At the end of December 2009 the population was 13215.
2011. At the end of December 2011 the population was 12472.
2012. At the end of December 2012 the population was 12407.
Report about the time after the war
The following are the experiences of a resident of Góra as described by her son, Waclaw
Timoszyk. Thank you very much for the description, and for the permission to publish this
My mother's native city is Kamenec Podolsky (now in Ukraine), part of Poland from XIV
century, in the Soviet Union before WWII. She managed to get to Poland in 1928, but was
"liberated" by Soviets in 1939. Her whole family was taken to Siberia. She was scheduled
to go there in a month or two, but before that happened Germans came in June 1941 (some
archives were opened by Germans and there she found her name on the list of next
deportees). In 1945 she decided to move west again ASAP she left
a town in what is now Belarus. My mother came to Góra on May 5, 1945. The war was still
going on! The town was relatively empty - no Germans, some people from places like
Bojanowo or Leszno and some Russian troops. These troops are responsible for putting all
the buildings on fire. As far as I know Góra was not defended by the Germans. My mother
lived in Góra until 1978 and to these days she is in close contacts with people there. The
last time I had visited that place was 1993.
Damage to the town
It was not so bad. The marketplace damage was about 25% (the city hall, the Three Crowns
Hotel and a few other buildings), also in the direction of Glogau, but not close to the center,
some buildings were completely burnt out. Besides that only isolated buildings or houses
were damaged. I lived exactly across the synagogue. It was completely destroyed, but I
have no idea who was responsible. It could have been done by the Nazis as well. (1)
The city hall was in a relatively good shape. The walls were sound and in about 1954 it had
been prepared for renovation, but communist authorities decided otherwise and the money
spent on these preparations was wasted and the whole structure was demolished. The
other buildings on that side were in the same condition.
To these days my mother is talking about the "crime" committed on the evangelical church.
As you know Poland as 95% catholic, but communist authorities did not want to make the
Catholic Church too strong and gave the building to the Methodist church. That church was
getting some help from the US just after 1945 and because of that found some converts.
However after 1948-49 all contacts with America were strictly forbidden and the Methodist
church lost all people and funds. The building then was for a number of years without proper
care. Some of my classmates for instance were entering the church through a window just
to get organ pipes so useful for children's play! After few years it had been used as a
storage space for furniture and maybe other products. It is still not very clear to me why
suddenly the authorities decided to demolish that building. Maybe safety was a concern. It
could require some renovations, therefore it was easier just to get rid of it. According to my
mother (she was a member of a city council, but not member of the communist party)
corruption was a strong factor. Many people needed bricks and other materials, but it was
very difficult to buy them, so demolishing old structures could bring some profits to many.
The Town Square
The new buildings around the marketplace are completely different in character and of low
quality. I remember my mother talking with the city architect about 1960. That man was
powerless. All decision were made in Wroclaw (Breslau) and based on ideological
concepts, namely something like that: We have to get rid of the Prussian heritage and build
a new Polish Silesia. Therefore the older "Piast" structures were in favor, but not the newer
ones. In the 1960 I read an article like this one in a newspaper after the museum building in
Wroclaw had been demolished instead of being rebuilt. That was the Bolshevik tradition of
destroying everything old. Yes, it is true that on the territories that belonged to Poland
before 1939 people resisted this trend much more successfully, but even in Góra they were
not supporting these policies. People do take care of the environment. Now it is better, but
the damage has been done.
With the evangelic commentary the story is different. At first, over many years, it was in
good shape, protected by the authorities and only occasionally damaged by some thieves
taking gravestones in order to resell them. In 1970s, under Gierek, the decision has been
made to convert the cemetery into an auditorium. Not only the cemetery has been
destroyed, but because some holes had to be made, the bones of some dead people could
be found scattered all over the place. I remember this myself! This was a barbaric act. As
far as I know current town authorities apologized for that. Yes, that was a communist
mentality, but again that would be impossible in the territories that belonged to Poland
before 1939. I remember myself at that time, when I came from Wroclaw to visit my mother
with my 2 yrs old daughter (1975) and found some of these bones. I regarded this as
barbaric, but still they were the bones of people from the nation that attacked my country
and I was not ready to take part in a protest that could result in something unpleasant for
me. Communists were rather nasty. So, people did not like it, but were not willing to make a
very strong protest.
I still hope to see graves of my relatives in Belarussia and Ukraine. I do not want anybody to
destroy cemeteries, buildings and history in general. There is always more room for mutual
understanding than we may think at first.
(1) The Synagogue was located in the "Alt-Guhrauer Str. and it was destroyed on
September 10/11, 1938 known as "Kristallnacht"
2008 Travel Report
Our trip to Góra - Guhrau
We, (my wife and I) wanted to spend a day in Guhrau to take photos. The main object was the Steinweg and the house of my grandparents.
We live in the south of Berlin in the district of Neukölln. From here to Guhrau is about 300 km. Of that about 100 km on highways. On Saturday, July 12, 2008,
we start and drove to just before the German-Polish Border. Suddenly, the high temperature display in the car signaled an error. Found out in a workshop,
the water pump was not running anymore. We got a rental car and drove back to Berlin.
July 19, 2008
So we started again in the morning of Saturday, July 19, 2008. Departure was at 8 AM. I had bought a new map, there was
a Polish highway shown from the border as fully finished. To save time after the border we wanted to continue on the newly built highway.
Found out quickly the construction of the highway had not even begun. So we took country roads to Glogau and to the small town
Beuthnig (today Bytnik). That was also to shoot some photos where relatives once lived.
Next, on country roads in direction Guhrau. What I had not thought about, for us the only bridge over the Oder is in Glogau. We
drove then to a ferry in Zichenau (Ciechanów). The ferry is free, theoretically at least. The ferry operators ask for three bottles of beer.
So we reached Guhrau via Alt-Guhrau, looked for and found the Steinweg. We parked in direction Kainzen by a pond, probably
a fire protection pond. There we made our photos of the Steinweg.
The house of my grandparents had been renovated in recent years. Noticeable on the roof of the house are still four balls. I could not go into the House,
it was locked, and no one opened the door. We then drove to the Topfmarkt (Pot Market) and found a place to park.
On the way was the former Kreishaus (district office), and the water tower. It looks more colorful than it used to, but we had the same impression
during our entire stay in Guhrau. Left of the Kreishaus the restaurant Opus 99, the only restaurant we would have wanted to enter.
The other restaurants in Guhrau looked quite rustic.
From Topfmarkt, we walked towards the inner city. On the Dohlenturm is still the Night Watchman as before the war. Turning right into Posener Street,
(on the left side is an empty lot between Vordergasse and Glogauer Street). If the houses were not recently painted, there are still remnants of old
inscriptions. In this street there are small shops, an ice cafe and a pizzeria. On the town square there are not many of the old buildings left.
What is noticeable, is that many people look out of the window to observe people on the streets. In the middle of the town square is a monument,
but one has the impression that it no longer really fits in. Continuing on former Schuh Street, we made photos of the House number 21 (now 42).
Here too, an old woman looks out the window on the first floor. Further, it goes through a small passageway to the Catholic Church. On the way to the church,
we see an old shaft cover from the period before the War.
The Catholic Church is in good condition inside and out. The Inside of the church is decorated for a wedding. One can still see the
old pictures, the pulpit and the altar. We walked for a while through the streets to see if there is something there, which is worth seeing.
Some Buildings in the area Schulstraße, Vordergasse are badly preserved, I did not think of taking photographs. On a lot next to the former brewery
is now a supermarket. We noticed that in Poland there are still many small shops. With these supermarkets it will probably soon be over for the
small shops. On the parking lot is a chimney, probably the old chimney of the brewery Spohn. The chimney has been renovated.
We can also say the current inhabitants nurture and want to preserve the still existing old and valuable remains.
We did not have contact with Polish people, most residents probably don't know German or English, and we cannot speak Polish.
It is 3 PM - We are starting our trip home, because rain clouds are forming. In the west of Guhrau is a new apartment complex.
A new church is being built there, next to it is another one as a transitional solution. After 15 minutes it starts to rain. But we are
in the car on the way home. On the way we still take small breaks in Neusalz and Grünberg. We arrive in Neukölln at 9 PM.
We will repeat the trip again next year. Then we will also look for buildings around Guhrau, like the railroad station, etc.
Translation - German text from Clemens S.
2006 Travel Report
Our Journey to Góra - Guhrau
Saturday, July 8th, 2006
After detailed preparation by email, from Statzendorf in Austria (Manfred and Andrea), to America (Heinz, Guhraunet), to Poland (Krzysztof,
Góra/Guhrau), and back to Austria.
Finally, on July 8th at 2 am the alarm clock rings. The time has come. The adventure Poland begins.
After 10 hours and 600 Km by car from Statzendorf over Znaim and Breslau (Wroclaw) we arrived at our destination, the city Góra (Guhrau). We
look for our hotel but made a wrong turn. Manfred asks a policeman. He is very nice and helpful; he offers to show us the hotel. At approx. 2 pm
we are finally at our hotel - hotel Opus 99. The hotel is a beautiful reconditioned old mansion (former Schmidt villa) with a large garden. The staff
speaks only a few words of German or English, but we do not have serious communication problems. The rooms are very spacious, nicely
furnished and clean.
Sunday, July 9th, 2006
The weather is sunny and it is very warm. We wait in the hotel garden for Krzysztof. He arrives just before 10 am. Krzysztof is a funny, nice, talkative,
intelligent young man (30 years). He is historically very much interested and speaks good English, tells us much about Góra (Guhrau) and
Czechnow (Zechen). He is a journalist and works for the city administration, makes PR and is editor-in-chief of the newspaper Pryeglad
Gorowski (free paper, appears every two weeks). We agree to visit him on the next day in his office and to drive to Zechen with him. His office is
in city hall (formerly district administration office). After a break we walk for 1 1/2 hours through Góra, along nice avenues with beautiful old brick
houses, across the town square back to the hotel.
Monday, July 10th, 2006
The church-bells wake us daily at 7 am. After breakfast we visit Krzysztof in his office. Subsequently, we drive with him to Zechen (Czechnow) to
the former estate of the Friedrich Biedermann family. Manfred is very happy that he is finally at the place where his mother lived as a young girl.
The manor is still in good condition and well kept, likewise the stables, except for one building, which burned down in the 70's. We drive briefly
beyond the village and afterwards return Krzysztof back to his office. Towards the end of his workday Krzysztof comes to the hotel and shows us
the photos he made during our trip to Zechen and asks us if he may publish an article
in the newspaper about us. We agree.
Tuesday, July 11th, 2006
Today we go to the Militsch sea plateau. The travel goes over Rawicz (Rawitsch) to Milicz (Militsch). Milicz is also a nice city with a beautiful town
square. On the return trip we drive by the village of Korzensko (Korsenz), in which Manfred's mother was born. The village is, as many, calm and
clean, many old houses are kept up and inhabited. Subsequently, we drive by the village Przywsie (Grenzvorwerk), where Manfred's grandfather
was born. It consists only of a few houses. Manfred collects earth from each village, which is connected with his family. Back in Góra, we visit the
plus market, buy a few things, visit briefly with Krzysztof in his office and go back to the hotel. A beautiful day ends, we have seen very
Wednesday, July 12th, 2006
We drive to Breslau (Wroclaw), and notice that polish drivers are very disciplined. The gasoline price is about as in Austria; the roads are in very
good condition. Breslau is now, with nearly 640,000 inhabitants, the fourth largest city of Poland. It is a very beautiful city. (Streetcars, many
beautiful building fronts, and construction activity) A successful mixture of old and new. We visit the city center with city hall, the old part of town,
and the university quarter, which was established around the 19th century; stroll along the river Oder and over the bridge to the cathedral.
Subsequently, we stop at a shopping center. Meals and beverages are cheaper, about half as much as in Austria, shoes and clothing are
approximately the same price. Afterwards we return to Góra to our hotel.
Thursday, July 13th, 2006
Through Krzysztof we received an invitation from the commander of the district police. We were received very cordially and led through the official
building. Gifts were exchanged. The policemen regret that we cannot participate in the local police celebration event on July 22. We return to the
hotel. After a short break we drive to the post office past a small market offering vegetable, fruits, flowers, clothes, devices etc. After that,
we take a ride to Klein Wiersewitz (Wierzowice Male), a small village, where relatives of Manfred were born. Unfortunately nothing remains of the
former Giese family estate, on which his relatives lived and worked. Back in the hotel in Góra we just talk in the garden.
Friday, July 14th, 2006
Krzysztof fetches us again. Today it goes to the Góra fire brigade, where the commander is already expecting us; he shows us proudly his
collection of helmets. Manfred receives badges as well as a cap of the fire brigade as gifts. Afterwards we go to the house (Schuhstraße/Armii Krajowej), where
Heinz lived for several years. Manfred takes earth here too, in order to send it to Heinz in America. Further we go to the city archives, where
Krzysztof tries to get copies of documents pertaining to Manfred's family. Unfortunately no documents are available. After a walk via the old,
closed railroad station, past the former catholic school and cinema (Fiebig) we return to the hotel.
We invite Krzysztof for dinner at the Hotel to thank him for all his help. At 8 pm he comes, we are all in a good mood, we are merry, laugh much,
eat excellently and sit until 11:30 pm in the garden. It is a warm summer night. We say good-bye to Krzysztof and thank him again with small gifts
for his really great efforts.
Saturday, July 15th, 2006
The previous evening, Manfred had the good idea to say hello to the parents of Krzysztof before our departure. Krzysztof was very pleased. He
guides us to the house of his parents, where we are already expected and welcomed cordially. The parents, Helena and Sigmund, are very nice
and hospitable. They invite us for a beverage into their decorative house. We get gifts again. Photos are taken in the garden. We say good-bye
and Krzysztof comes with us in order to show us the correct exit.
The parting from him pains us very, very heavily. In Krzysztof we really found a genuine friend. We hope that we will see him again, no matter
At 10:30 am we leave Góra. The route leads us over Lubin (Lueben) and Legnica (Liegnitz) to the Polish-Czech border. After crossing the border
we continue through Tschechien into Austria. In Haugsdorf we cross the Czech-Austrian border and drive towards our Statzendorfer home where
we arrive after 1.643 km at approx. at 8 pm.
The vacation was beautiful - Poland is worth a journey! Particularly impressing were the beautiful properties and well-maintained houses made of
brick, which were built in the last century. Clean and safe cities, good road conditions, friendly people, beautiful sea-areas, endless cornfields,
and oak lined avenues, culturally worth seeing, good civil kitchen and well maintained accommodations.
Text from APICA Member (Austrian Police Insignia Collectors Association)
Manfred Koscak und Friend Andrea